从电视假新闻看电视记者新闻职业道德现状

——以2007年电视假新闻“纸馅包子”“史上最毒后妈”为例

杨皓 清华大学


【摘要】2007年是中国电视新闻的多事之年,两则电视假新闻“纸馅包子”和“史上最毒后妈”的播出,无疑将电视记者的职业道德推到了一个风口浪尖。
本文主要以2007年出现的两则电视假新闻“纸馅包子”和“史上最毒后妈”为切入点,首先,剖析从中暴露的我国电视记者职业道德问题;其次,分析产生电视记者职业道德缺失的原因;最后,从对BBC记者的访谈和BBC《制作人手册》规章中选取值得学习的电视记者职业道德规范,并结合我国的自身特点,探寻提高电视记者职业道德的途径。
本论文的亮点之处:

1.将电视媒介的新闻记者作为研究对象。

电视记者作为新闻记者群体的一个部分,有着和其他媒介新闻记者共性之外,也有着自身的特性。本文主要从电视媒介的特性出发,从拍摄角度、剪辑手法等电视新闻特性出发,探讨我国电视记者的职业道德问题;并从我国电视媒体特有的用人机制、“把关人”制度等角度分析原因,使论文具有较强的社会性和针对性。

2.对BBC记者和培训机构负责人进行专访。

通过对BBC著名战地记者阿兰·约翰斯通(Alan Johnston)的访谈和对BBC世界新闻中心记者培训部高级制作人克瑞斯汀·波么而特(Kristine Pommert)的采访,将BBC有关电视记者的职业道德规范值得学习之处作介绍,结合我国电视记者职业道德缺失的现状,探寻解决的途径,使论文具有前瞻性和开放性。

【关键词】电视记者,电视新闻职业道德,电视假新闻,偷拍

【Abstract】It was an eventful year for Chinese TV in 2007. It was two pieces of false TV news, steamed buns stuffed with cardboard and a story about the most malicious step-mother, that brought a fierce controversy over the TV journalistic ethics.

This thesis will be demonstrated in terms of the two pieces of false TV news. Firstly, it illustrates what kinds of problems exist with TV journalistic ethics in China. Secondly, it analyzes what might cause moral deficiency among Chinese TV journalists. Lastly, we will find out ways to resolve these problems through learning from the interview with BBC Journalists and BBC Editorial Guidelines (The BBC’s Values and Standards).
Two points of importance in this thesis:

1.TV journalists can be considered as this research subject.

TV journalists who work as the main part of journalists not only have in much common with other journalists but also have some special characteristics themselves. It is the point of this thesis to analyze these special characteristics about TV journalistic ethics from the way of filming and editing and find the reasons for these problems according to the current employment mechanism and system.

2.Exclusive interviews with BBC journalists and senior producer

Learning from interviewing BBC Journalists Alan Johnston and BBC World Service Training senior producer Kristine Pommert exclusively, find the way to tackle the moral deficiency among Chinese TV journalists according to the current Chinese situation.

Keyword】TV Journalists, TV Journalistic Ethics, False TV News,Hidden Cameras